1. Each paper must have a cover page with your name and date as well as the Trackstar number (Trackstar II). This information should be centered both vertically and horizontally on the page.
2. Each paper must be typed with 1 inch margins all around. You must double space (with no extra spaces between paragraphs) and you must not justify the right margin. The Times New Roman, 12 pt font must be used.
3. Type the title of each article and type each question before you type the answer. There should be something to differentiate the question from the answer, such as bold print, underlining, or a new line started.
4. Use complete sentences and full explanations for your opinions.
5. All arguments or statements must be coherent, logical, relevant and free of generalizations and stereotypes. Do not preach and do not take scripture out of context. Do not summarize the material.
6. Each trackstar should be a minimum of 5 full pages.
7. Page numbers begin with page two of your text (written material). The title page is not part of your page count. Page numbers are placed in the top right corner of the paper where the top one (1) inch margin intersects with the right margin. The title page and the first page of written material do not have a number on them.
8. Staple your paper or put it in a folder. Papers which are paper-clipped together or papers with just the corners folded over will not be accepted.
9. You must read all of the articles and answer all of the questions.
10. Your paper will be graded not only on the content but also on the use of the English language (grammar, punctuation, etc.) as well as your adherence to the format listed above.
A reflection paper should include a discussion of the material presented in the text as well as the material presented in class. It should contain ideas such as how theories relate to the current events and happenings as expressed in the media either locally, nationally or globally. Analogies can also be drawn from personal experience as well as observations from your own environment. Scripture may be used; however, it should not be taken out of context nor should there be "preaching" within the paper.
Each reflection paper should be 8-10 pages, typed and double-spaced. Each paper should have a title page with the following information centered both vertically and horizontally: Reflection Paper I (or II, etc), your name as well as the date. The title page and first page should not be numbered. The page numbers start with page 2 of the text and are placed in the top right hand corner of the page where the once inch margins meet (one inch from the top and one inch from the right). The paper should also be written in a modified APA format which includes:
1. One inch margins all around
2. No justification of the right margin
3. No sexist language is used ( humankind rather than mankind; a child can be he/she, etc.)
4. Standard English is used
5. There is not a bibliography just a reference page (only work cited within the text of the paper is referenced) and there is no need to reference the text.
The paper's grade will reflect:
1. The knowledge and use of the material in the readings from your textbook.
2. The knowledge and use of the material presented in class
3. The ability to synthesize the material
4. The correct us of grammar, punctuation and spelling
5. The absence of typographical errors
6. The use of the format given above
7. A minimum of 8 full pages.
8. Papers which are stapled or placed in a binder. No papers should be paper-clipped or just have the edges folded over.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND
MINORITY RELATIONS II
Stratification is the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal reward and power in a society.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS II (2)
Class is a social ranking of people who share similar wealth or prestige.
Mobility from one class to another is not easy especially for subordinate groups.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS II (3)
Social stratification is explained usually by three main theories--Functionalism, Conflict and Labeling theories.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS II (4)
The functionalist perspective emphasizes how the parts of society are structured to maintain its stability.
If an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society’s stability or survival, it will not be passed on from one generation to the next.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS II (5)
There are five functions that racial beliefs have for the dominant group:
Racist ideologies provide a moral justification for maintaining a society that routinely deprives a group of its rights and privileges.
Racist beliefs discourage subordinate people from attempting to question their lowly status, to do so is to question the very foundation of society.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS II (6)
Racial ideologies not only justify existing practices but also serve as a rallying point for social movements (e.g. the Nazi party).
Racist myths encourage support for the existing order. The argument is that if there were any major societal change, the subordinate group would suffer even greater poverty and the dominant group would suffer lower living standards.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS II (7)
Racist beliefs relieve the dominant group of the responsibility to address the economic and educational problems faced by subordinate groups.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY REALTIONS (8)
There are six ways in which racism is dysfunctional to a society including the dominant group:
A society that practices discrimination fails to use the resources of all individuals. It limits the search for talent and leadership to the dominant group.
A BASIC UNDERSTAND FOR GROUP AND MINORITY REALTIONS (9)
Discrimination aggravates social problems such as poverty, delinquency, and crime. It also places the financial burden of alleviating these problems on the dominant group.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (10)
The dominant group must invest a good deal of time and money to defend the barriers that prevent the full participation of all members of society.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (11)
Racial prejudice and discrimination undercut goodwill and friendly diplomatic relations between nations. They also negatively affect efforts to increase global trade.
Social change is inhibited because change may assist a subordinate group.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (12)
Discrimination promotes disrespect for law enforcement and for the peaceful settlement of disputes.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (13)
In contrast to the functionalists’ emphasis on stability, conflict sociologists see the social world as being in continual struggle:
Assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
Functionalists are not necessarily in favor of inequality; rather their approach helps us to understand why such systems persist.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (14)
The conflict approach looks at the idea that the subordinate group is criticized for its low status.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (15)
The dominant group portrays the problems of racial and ethnic minorities as the minorities’ fault rather than recognizing society’s responsibility.
Another way of expressing this concept is “blaming the victim.”
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (16)
The labeling theory leads to the role negative stereotypes play in race and ethnicity.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (17)
Stereotypes are unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (18)
In certain situations, we may respond to negative stereotypes and act on them.
The stereotype becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
A BASIC UNDERSTAND FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (19)
Self-fulfilling prophecies are devastating for minority groups:
Are allowed to hold only low-paying jobs with little opportunity for advancement because the stereotype is that this minority lacks the ability to perform any other job.
Training to do any other job is also denied because the stereotype is that they lack the skills to perform.
A BASIC UNDERSTANDING FOR GROUP AND MINORITY RELATIONS (20)
The traits we attribute to people based on how we have categorized them are for the most part unjustified by our observations.