Weekly Notes for Intro to Sociology
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GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR REACTION PAPERS
1. Every paper must have a title page with
the following items centered on it:
title of the article
number of the reaction paper (Reaction Paper II)
2. Number each page in the top right-hand
corner beginning with page 2 of the text (the first page is counted in the
page count, the title page is not)
3. Type paper using 1 inch margins all
around and double spacing. Do not justify the right margin. Do not use
extra spacing between paragraphs. Use the standard double-space.
4. Staple all pages of your paper together or
put them in a folder. Paper clipped paper or papers whose corners are just
folded over will not be accepted.
5. In each paper (minimum of 5 full pages)
address the following concepts:
What new information did I learn?
What really made sense to me?
Was there any bias exhibited in the article? In what ways was this
What did I disagree with and why do I disagree?
Was the research questionable in any way? What makes you think it was
What in the article has made me think about people, life-styles, attitudes,
etc. that I have not considered before?
Use only a 12 point font and Times New Roman
Items a-f are guidelines to your paper. They are not questions to be
listed and answered.
6. All anecdotes or personal experiences
included in the paper are ok as long as you explain how they relate to the
content of the material you read.
7. Your paper will be graded not only on the
content but also on the use of the English language (grammar, punctuation,
spelling, etc) as well as the correct format as listed above.
8. You do not necessarily need a summary;
however, there should be ample evidence that the views in the reading were taken
9. A reminder: Your paper should be a
minimum of 5 full pages.
IN SOCIOLOGY III
Is There A New Gender Gap? Are Boys and Men Disadvantaged Relative to Girls
IN SOCIOLOGY III (2)
plays a large role in hiring and pay.
has also failed to give equal opportunity to women and selected minorities
SOCIOLOGY III (3)
Rights Act and affirmative action policies have greatly improved the life
chances of African-Americans and women.
have been great enough to lead some white males to now feel that they are
being discriminated against.
SOCIOLOGY III (4)
There is one
area where males have definitely lost their advantage and that is education.
In 1960 male
college graduates outnumbered females by five to three
By 1980 they
were equal and as of 2003, women earned 57% of the bachelor degrees.
SOCIOLOGY III (5)
reversal in educational outcomes for males and females has caused some
writers to affirm the new gender gap with males being disadvantaged.
SOCIOLOGY III (6)
In one high
school in New Jersey, the senior class president was female as well as was
the vice-president, head of student government, captain of the math team,
chief of the year book and editor of the newspaper.
school in Maryland, it was noted that “boys were missing from nearly every
leadership position, academic honors slot and student-activity post at the
SOCIOLOGY III (7)
first day in school, an average boy is already developmentally two years
behind the girls in reading and writing.
SOCIOLOGY III (8)
A boy is
expected to learn the same things in the same way in the same amount of
nerve in his body tells him to run, he has to sit still and listen for 6-8
hours a day.
SOCIOLOGY III (9)
Biologically, a boy needs four recesses a day, but he’s lucky if he gets
Hug a girl,
and he could be labeled a “toucher” and swiftly suspended
The is an
increasing anti-boy culture that pathologizes boy/male behavior.
SOCIOLOGY III (10)
If he falls
behind, he’s shipped off to special ed.
will find that more than 70% of his classmates are boys.
SOCIOLOGY III (11)
If a boy
squirms, clowns, or interrupts, he is four times as likely to be diagnosed
with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
shows that more than 20% of upper middle-class white boys were taking drugs
for hyperactivity by fifth grade.
SOCIOLOGY III (12)
maintains that while girls are busy working on sweeping the honor roll at
graduation, a boy is more likely to be bulking up in the weight room,
playing video games, or downloading to his iPOD.
SOCIOLOGY III (13)
He is 30%
more likely to drop out, 85% more likely to commit murder and four to six
times more likely to kill himself.
have tripled in the past 35 years.
SOCIOLOGY III (14)
British research, once a young man is out of the house, he’s more likely
than his sister to boomerang back home and sponge off his mom and dad.
young man reaches adulthood, he is more likely than he was 30 years ago to
end up in the new and growing class of underachievers.
SOCIOLOGY III (15)
In the US,
boys’ fall from alpha to omega doesn’t even have a name. One researcher
maintains that no one wants to speak out on behalf of boys.
SOCIOLOGY III (16)
rapidly closing the M.D. and PhD gap.
decisive educational edge is enabling females to narrow the earnings gap.
SOCIOLOGY III (17)
creeping pattern of male disengagement and economic dependency continues,
more men could end up becoming losers in a global economy that values mental
powers over might.
SOCIOLOGY III (18)
also threatens to erode male earnings, spark labor shortages for skilled
SOCIOLOGY III (19)
It also will
create the same kind of squeeze for Caucasian women that now exists for
African American women—30% of the 40-to 44-year old women have never
married, owing in part to the lack of men with the same academic credentials
and earning potential.
SOCIOLOGY III (20)
say that boys are usually superior spatial thinkers and possess the ability
to see things in three dimensions.
often drawn to play that involves intense movement and an element of
SOCIOLOGY III (21)
example, can learn math through counting pinecones and biology through
mucking around in a pond. They can read
Little House on the Prairie.
They can write about aliens attacking rather than how to take care of
SOCIOLOGY III (22)
disagree that a reverse gender gap exists.
that women who demand equality are out to hurt men.
SOCIOLOGY III (23)
researchers give several explanations and point to holes in the current data
on the educational experiences of men and women.
jobs that do not require college degrees such as skilled trades are still
women need a college degree in order to earn roughly what men do with only
high school diplomas.
SOCIOLOGY III (24)
African-American population there is a wide gap between women and men
earning college degrees.
This is more
due more to institutional racism then a gender gap.
SOCIOLOGY III (25)
crucial field of information technology women continue to earn only about
1/3 of the degrees awarded and get only about 1/3 of the jobs awarded.
SOCIOLOGY III (26)
to outpace women in professional and doctoral degrees resulting in continued
male dominance in corporate board rooms, the seats of political power and
the highest positions in universities.
SOCIOLOGY III (27)
education is a major factor in gaining financial security, it is something
that is only available to less than ½ of the adult population.
majority of women the “new gender gap” means absolutely nothing.
SOCIOLOGY III (28)
out of ten women are not eligible for pension benefits.
women do get a pension, it is far less than retired men get.
SOCIOLOGY III (29)
cent of the women who do get a pension earn only about 60 cents for every
dollar a male pensioner receives.
SOCIOLOGY III (30)
average, retired women depend on Social Security for 71% of their income and
about 25% rely solely on Social Security for their income.
SOCIOLOGY III (31)
In the work
force, women’s pay averages only 76% of men’s pay at a cost of about $200
billion for working families annually.
of all women earn less than $25,000 annually.
SOCIOLOGY III (32)
one third more likely to live below the poverty level.
and Latinas are between two and three times more likely to live below the
poverty line than men are.
SOCIOLOGY III (33)
every case, women lose income, jobs, job experience and retirement income
(even though work hours increase) when they decide to have children.
SOCIOLOGY III (34)
mothers and their children have among the highest rates of poverty of any
SOCIOLOGY III (35)
Do men go
unhurt by gender inequalities?
family is hurt and many suffer especially when there is pay differentials.
IN SOCIOLOGY III (36)
family members are hurt by their mothers, grandmothers, sisters and aunts
who lose income, get fired, face hiring discrimination, are refused
pensions, don’t have equal Social Security benefits, lose out on promotions
or have limited access to higher education.
TEST I ENDS HERE
IN SOCIOLOGY IV
#4: Are The Poor To Blame For Their Own Poverty?
the 1700s and 1800s many viewed the poor as having flawed or even
considered poverty a result of or punishment for sinfulness, laziness,
or lack of a work ethic
poor were ostracized, avoided, stigmatized and thrown in jail
IN SOCIOLOGY IV (2)
the early 1900s, some realized that poverty was also caused by social
and economic forces beyond anyone’s control.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (3)
As a result of the Great Depression in the 1930s, large
numbers of people had to struggle to live.
It became clear that they were not to blame for their
joblessness and poverty.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (5)
Many now feel that there are links between culture and
The “Culture of Poverty” thesis is that certain types of
cultures restrict people and prevent them from achieving their potential
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (5)
This thesis also asserts that people who are poor learn
to act in ways that are adaptations to their poverty—these adaptations
keep whole societies in poverty
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (6)
Definitions of poverty vary from one location to another,
depending on what people do in their daily lives and where they live
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (7)
A poverty line is calculated so that is represents a
minimal standard of living, generally higher in cities and lower in
rural areas, reflecting the cost of living
In the United States in 2002, 34.6 milllion people lived
below the official poverty line
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (8)
Usually, women, racial minorities, rural people and
people with less education are more likely to be poor in any given
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (9)
Those who believe in a culture of poverty assert that
some people are perpetually disadvantaged because they assimilated poor
values that handicap their ability to improve their lives
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (10)
The strong “Protestant Work Ethic” leads some to believe
that the poor themselves are to blame for their situation due to their
individual failures and flaws
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (11)
Lewis, who studied peasant farmers, found that the
farmers valued family over the individual.
He also found that they were unwilling to place trust in
people outside the family
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (12)
Lewis also found that these farmers viewed anybody who
did get ahead as unfairly taking other people’s shares of the village
Lewis saw these traits as cultural. People learned them
as children when they were socialized into the culture.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (13)
Some groups feel that the chronically impoverished
members of society are lazy or lack innovation and enterprise.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (14)
Some segments of society feel that the chronically
impoverished are neither necessarily born lazy nor inherently lacking in
innovation and enterprise.
Instead, the culture in which the culture were raised—a
culture that promotes learned helplessness, pessimism and a lack of
faith in the system—prevents them from amassing the tools and skills
necessary to escape their situations.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (15)
Poor people are judged by others and their cultures are
Judgment occurs without regard to either the processes
that made people poor or what the poor think about the condition.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (16)
Most of the research on poverty is done by white, upper
or middle class individuals who will inevitably have an “us” versus
“them” perspective on poverty since the researchers have never
experienced poverty first hand.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (17)
Social conditions which contribute to poverty are:
Legal as well as covert racism
The earning gap between genders
The moving of jobs outside of the US.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (18)
Barriers make it difficult for poor people not to be
Poor quality of schooling in low income neighborhoods
Racism and discrimination in the job market
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (19)
Other barriers include lack of money for job training
when the job market changes and the inability to move to another area
when the job market moves.
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (20)
Being poor means:
not having enough money to pay the rent or power bills on
a regular basis
going into debt in order to feed and house one’s family
that any money earned is already spoken for and the
indebtedness increases rapidly
not being able to afford medical care or medication
ISSUES IN SOCIOLOGY IV (21)
calculations include only money for basic housing, some food and
people require more to actually survive in our current economy.
IN SOCIOLOGY IV (22)
we really blaming the victim when we tell the poor that they are the
ones responsible for their being poor?
TEST II ENDS HERE
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II
The stratification systems of class, race ethnicity, and gender
constitute a major feature of the macro level of social organization
of American society.
They exist beyond the control of any individual and are so pervasive
that they sometimes become invisible.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (2)
Upper-Class Families: Gatekeepers
Life in an upper-class family is not often open to scrutiny by the
public or by researchers.
Rich people, however, know a lot about each other.
Their preoccupation with maintaining boundaries between themselves
and others has been noted by a number of scholars.
Families are a key way in which “membership” is identified
Being from a “good family” is essential and sometimes even overrides
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (3)
Simmel wrote that “Aristocrats would get to know each other better
in an evening than the middle class would in a month.”
Wealthy people identify themselves by membership and background.
Middle-class people identify themselves by individual achievement.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (4)
person who knows the meaning of various memberships and connections
among the upper class can draw a complete picture of a person.
essential piece of information in determining membership is family
Women in elite families play a special role in maintaining
The women are the “gatekeepers” in that they launch the children,
serve as board members at private schools, run clubs and facilitate
the marriage pools through events like debuts and charity balls.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (5)
Families also help maintain an individual’s social standing among
the wealthy class by teaching family members how to maintain their
First lesson is not to “spend down capital.”
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (6)
Volunteer work is an especially important activity in the production
and maintenance of social status (to uphold the power and privilege
of their class in the social order of things) (Ostrander, 1984).
Marriage must be within one’s class. Debuts are critical events to
ensure that children meet the proper prospective mates as well as be
part of the “right” social clubs.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (7)
Athletic games and activities are important for children to “stay in
their class.” The lessons of “discipline, confidence, competition
and a sense of control” are learned there.
good education in a prestigious upper-class school was another goal
because of both the academic training and the social networks it
afforded their children. The women spent much time planning and
orchestrating all of these activities
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (8)
Upper-class families are largely responsible for maintaining their
own position within the stratification system.
They pass down wealth, teach their children how to maintain their
position and bring their children into the social network
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (9)
Four factors characterize middle-class families:
Geographical mobility resulting in residence away from kin
Replacement of kin with other institutions for economic support
Reliance on friendship rather than kinship for affective support and
Investment of resources lineally
CLASS AND GENDER II (10)
In order to
maintain their income, middle-class families may have to move
middle-class occupations are frequently asked to move when their
company needs them to work at another site.
professionals may find that to get a raise or further their career
they must take a job with another company in another state
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (11)
The geographic moves remove the middle-class family from their
extended family ties. When economic help is needed, they will
probably rely on non-family sources.
middle-class family that needs money for a house would go to a bank
for a loan. While both upper-class and working-class families might
be more likely to seek assistance from their kin.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER II (12)
families may also replace kin with friends in seeking emotional and
families tend not to share their material goods with extended kin
and maintain friendships that do not include sharing resources. In
this way they are better able to accumulate material wealth rather
than dispersing it.
families stress upward mobility based on not sharing what they have
Their wealth is
invested lineally—between parents and children—rather than laterally
among extended family and close friends.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER (13)
One of the sources of the independence and isolation of contemporary
middle-class families is the geographic mobility that accompanies
Every year about 45 million Americans move.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER (14)
Most research has been done as it exists in families where the
husband needs to move because men are much more likely than women,
especially married women, to move for work.
Moves are experienced differently for women and men in families.
The move enhances the career of the husband for whom the move is
being made and most men feel that moving is not a problem
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER (15)
When a man must move because his wife has found another job, his
response is different. Research shows that a man will follow his
wife only if she earns 25%-40% more than he does.
FAMILY, CLASS, RACE AND GENDER II (16)
Moving tends to be very difficult for children between the ages of
3-5 and for children between the ages of 14-16.
CLASS AND GENDER III
Black Middle-Class Families:
are similar to white middle-class families in the focus of their
lives on home and family
Willie’s research (1983) shows the black middle-class families to be
achievement oriented, upwardly mobile, immersed in work, and with
little time for leisure.
Education, hard work, and thrift are perceived to be the means to
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (2)
Middle-class black parents insist that their children get a good
education not only to escape possible deprivations but to serve as
symbols of achievement for the family as well as for the race.
Each generation is expected to stand on the shoulders of the past
generation and to do more.
All achievement by members in black middle-class families is for the
purpose of group advancement as well as individual enhancement.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (3)
In contrast, white families emphasize freedom, autonomy and
Individualism can shatter family solidarity and can lead individuals
to display narcissistic and hedonistic behavior.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (4)
In the black middle-class family, individual fulfillment is
sometimes seen as self-centered activity and therefore may be less
valued. What really counts is how the family is doing.
This also has its problems in that it discourages experimentation,
risk-taking and creative activities.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (5)
A number of studies have found a greater level of equality between
husbands and wives in black families than in white families.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (6)
Egalitarian ideologies are stronger among blacks than white (Hunter
and Sellers, 1998).
Black men are more likely to share in housework and child care than
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (7)
WORKING CLASS FAMILIES:
Have the ideological commitment to marry for love, not money
The importance of extended kin and other networks to economic and
The appearance of separation of work and family
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (8)
Working-class couples marry for love and love provided a way to
escape from the difficulties of their parents’ homes.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (9)
Upper –class couples recognize their marriages as a way to preserve
their class identity.
Middle-class couples may also marry for love but their overriding
task was to enhance the earning power of the breadwinner.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (10)
The second characteristic of working-class families is the reliance
on the extended family and others to bridge the gap between what a
household’s resources really are and what a family’s position is
supposed to be.
Rapp(1982) observed that the extended family helps in the sharing of
baby-sitting, meals and small amounts of money.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (11)
In working-class families the extended kin relationships can become
problematic when the struggle is over who comes first, the wife or
the husband’s mother?
Blue-collar jobs do not include bringing work home, and one’s
occupation does not carry over into one’s identity in the way a
middle-class professional’s might.
Work does, however, affect the family and the family affects the
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (12)
In most working-class homes, it requires both parents to have
incomes to supply the minimal needs of the family.
FAMILIES: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER III (13)
Benefits such as sick days, vacation time, hospitalization and
retirement are not part of the employment.
Child care becomes a major issue.
FAMILIES: CLASS, RACE AND GENDER III (14)
In many working class families parents must choose between losing
income and not having enough money for food and housing or leaving
their children alone for periods of time.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U. S.
Historically, the European explorers did not simply discover America.
They arrived with political models to conquer and subjugate the land and
The treaties between the Indian nations and the government were designed
to colonize and dislocate them from their lands.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U. S. (2)
Within the first two centuries of the first European settlement
(colony), the European settlers held title to almost every acre of the
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (3)
White society became more equal as Indian nations became more unequal.
When the framers of the Constitution decided to define the rights and
liberties of the people, inequality had become the norm of racial and
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (4)
Society allocates access to valued resources and opportunities according
to one’s placement in social hierarchy. Those at the top have access to
a larger share of opportunities and resources
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (5)
The dominant group in any society maintain its social position by
controlling the production of valued resources.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (6)
Inequality in the U.S. can be seen in education, criminal justice, the
family, economics, health and medicine, and in the community.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (7)
For most Americans, education is a vehicle for personal achievement and
socioeconomic advance—a fundamental premise of the “American Dream.”
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (8)
Most Americans feel that the postponement of personal gratification in
the pursuit of educational goals will result in social rewards that go
with a prestigious occupational position.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (9)
U.S. public education has legitimized the unequal treatment of students
of color by schooling them differently than white students.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (10)
Gross disparities in school funding have ensured that white students
have superior teachers, facilities and more educational programs than
what one finds in schools where nonwhite students are in the majority
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (11)
Nationally, about 68% of students who entered 9th grade graduate on time
in the 12th grade:
Asian students 77% graduation rate
White students 75% graduation rate
African American 50% graduation rate
Latino 53% graduation rate
Native American 51% graduation rate
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (12)
Graduation rates are worse for high schools located in central city
neighborhoods with high concentrations of minority populations, poverty,
high percentages of disabled students and English-language learners.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (13)
Unemployment rates, prison incarceration rates, and poverty rates are
directly related to high school dropout rates.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (14)
White students are about 68% of college enrollments and college students
of color are slightly more than 28% of college enrollments.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (15)
Of minority college students:
Blacks represent 11%
Latinos represent 9%
Pacific Islanders represent 6%
Native Americans represent 1%
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (16)
As of 2003, white students attended schools where they were 79% of the
Blacks and Latino students, 54% of the student population
Asian students, 22% of the student population
Native American students, 33% of the student population
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (17)
New York, Illinois, Michigan and California have more pronounced
segregation of black students in public schools than other states.
New York, California, Texas and New Mexico have more pronounced
segregation of Latinos in public schools than other states.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (18)
Whites make up 85% of instructional faculty in higher education, Blacks
make up 5%, Asian and Pacific Islanders make up 6%, Latinos make up 3%
and Native Americans make up 1%
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (19)
White faculty members generally have higher salaries, are more likely to
be tenured and are more likely to be full professors than faculty of
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (20)
Laws and public policies in the U.S. reflect the contradiction of a
society attempting to act within an egalitarian ideological posture
while treating minorities with direct inequality.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (21)
A prominent example of the inequity of the justice system in the
overrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in the criminal
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (22)
Latinos tend to receive harsher prison sentences from courts and serve
more time in prison than whites convicted of similar crimes.
Latinos are less able to make bail and they are more likely to have
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (23)
Even in states that do not have significant Latino populations, Latinos
are subjected to inequitable treatment by the criminal justice system.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (24)
The incarceration rate of Native Americans is almost 38% higher than the
The Native American population is 1% of the total population; however,
2% of all federal cases are against Native Americans.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (25)
The correctional system subjects Native Americans to more abuse than any
other minority group particularly when they try to identify with their
culture by language, dress, etc.
Native Americans serve more of their sentences than any other prisoners.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (26)
Black defendants constitute a disproportionate segment of the executed
prison population. The race of the defendant and the race of the victim
predict how state prosecutors decide to seek the death penalty.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. (27)
There are clear patterns of racial discrimination in capital sentencing;
however, there are clear patterns of inequities for all minorities in
the criminal justice system
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II
In many incidents of domestic violence, police may refuse to take
reports; prosecutors may encourage defendants to plead to minor
offenses; judges may rule against the victim on evidentiary matters.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (2)
The response to domestic violence commonly stems from the misperception
of the victim’s situation and the belief that the woman should simply
leave her abuser.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (3)
Police arrest whites and Asian Americans for offenses against family and
children proportionate to the representation of the population; however,
Blacks and Native Americans over represent the percentage of population.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (4)
An intimate kills about 33% of all female murder victims and 4% of all
male murder victims.
Black females are 35% more likely than white females to suffer intimate
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (5)
State child welfare agencies have failed to safeguard children placed in
In many states, child protection services fail to investigate adequately
the complaints of child abuse and neglect.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (6)
In some cases, state agencies continue to send foster care children to
private child placement agencies despite learning that the agencies had
hired managers suspected of endangering children in the past.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (7)
Child welfare systems remove poor children from their families more
often than non poor children.
Because abuse is more prevalent among poor families, there is a
disparate impact of removing children from families of color since
minorities are overrepresented among the poor.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (8)
The percentage of African American and Native American children in the
child welfare system is greater than the percentage of each group in the
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (9)
The highest rates of child victimization occur as follows:
Native American 21.7%
African American 20.2%
per 1000 children
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (10)
The U.S. occupational structure is segmented into a primary labor market
and a secondary labor market which is often called dual labor markets.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (11)
The primary labor market provides extensive benefits to workers such as
high income, prestige and job security.
These occupations are personally challenging and intrinsically
rewarding, they require higher levels of educational attainment, they
offer considerable opportunity for advancement and workers in these
positions have significant autonomy and independence.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (12)
Primary labor market jobs are traditional white-collar professions, such
as physicians, lawyers, college and university professors, and corporate
and government upper level management positions
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (13)
Secondary labor market jobs provide minimal benefits to workers.
Secondary labor jobs have lower incomes, longer workweeks, less job
security, less opportunity for advancement and are vulnerable to
economic fluctuations adversely affecting employment
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (14)
Secondary jobs are usually hourly, in the service industry, manual
labor, housekeeping, etc.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (15)
In 1963 the Equal Pay Act made it illegal for employers to pay unequal
wages to women who do the same work as men.
In 1964 the Civil Rights Act made it unlawful for public or private
employers to discriminate against persons of color and women.
Persons of color and women continue to suffer workplace discrimination.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (16)
White men occupy approximately 97% of the senior management positions in
most industrial firms in the United States.
Although Asians have twice the educational attainment of the general
population, they are less likely than whites to occupy executive
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (17)
Disproportionate concentrations of Asian American workers are in low-and
mid-level jobs. Blacks, Native Americans and Latinos are more likely to
be operators, fabricators and day laborers.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (18)
Women are concentrated in categories such and teachers, nurses,
librarians, cashiers, administrative support staff, domestic workers and
Women of color do not do as well as white women. The majority of women
of color remain relegated to low-wage labor positions.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (19)
White persons earn higher yearly incomes than do Blacks, Latinos, Asian
Americans and Native Americans with the same education levels.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (20)
The wage gap between men and women results from the continued
occupational segregation of women into traditional low-wage
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (21)
Some states (CA) pay female workers less than they pay male workers in
the same position ($12,000).
Women lose more than $130 billion annually to pay inequity.
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (22)
At the end of 2003, nearly 36 million people in the U.S. (12.5% of the
population) lived in poverty:
Asian Americans 11.8%
Numbers represent percentages of that particular population
AN OVERVIEW OF INEQUALITY IN THE U.S. II (23)
The poor continue to live in mostly female-headed households.
About 1/3 of all white families and nearly ½ of all families of color
are female-headed families living in poverty.